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Which kingdom do mushrooms belong to? What dinosaur was a chicken-size predator? Test your knowledge of everything in science with this quiz.
The green algae Ulva lactuca , commonly known as sea lettuce, is easily harvested when it is exposed at low tide.
Many people living in coastal societies consume sea lettuce in salads and soups. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Load Next Page. Some places where they grow are tree trunks and animal fur. They can exist as single and microscopic cells, they can be macroscopic and multicellular.
Flagella is absent. Non motile colony:- Individual cell in the colony lacks flagella. Motile colony:- Individual cells possess flagella.
Amorphous colony:- Numerous non motile cells are embedded in a common mucilaginous matrix. Dendroid forms:- The thallus appears as tree like under microscope.
Filamentous:- Cells arranged one upon the other in a definite sequence forming filament. Filament may be branched or unbranched. Heterotrichous form:- Presence of more than one type of filament.
However, there exist certain algal species that need to obtain their nutrition solely from outside sources; that is, they are heterotrophic.
Such species apply a variety of heterotrophic strategies to acquire nutrients from organic materials carbon containing compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Osmotrophy is the absorption of dissolved substances, and phagotrophy involves engulfing bacteria or other such prey. Other algae, known as auxotrophs, need to only acquire essential vitamins such as the B 12 complex or fatty acids according to "Algae".
According to the authors of "Algae," it is widely accepted that the nutritional strategies of algae exist on a spectrum combining photoautotrophy and heterotrophy.
This ability is known as mixotrophy. Algae are capable of reproducing through asexual or vegetative methods and via sexual reproduction.
According to the authors of "Algae," asexual reproduction involves the production of a motile spore, while vegetative methods include simple cell division mitosis to produce identical offspring and the fragmentation of a colony.
Sexual reproduction involves the union of gametes produced individually in each parent through meiosis. These are also referred to as blue-green algae.
Though they are capable of conducting oxygen-producing photosynthesis and live in many of the same environments as eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria are gram-negative bacteria , and therefore are prokaryotes.
They are also capable of independently conducting nitrogen fixation, the process of converting atmospheric nitrogen to usable forms of the element such as ammonia.
The prefix "cyano" means blue. These bacteria have pigments that absorb specific wavelengths of light and give them their characteristic colors.
Many cyanobacteria have the blue pigment phycocyanin, a light-harvesting pigment it absorbs red wavelengths of light.
Cyanobacteria all have some form of the green pigment chlorophyll, which is responsible for harvesting light energy during the photosynthetic process Current Biology, Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga.
Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction.
Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids leaf-like structures of bryophytes , rhizoids in nonvascular plants , and the roots , leaves , and other organs found in tracheophytes vascular plants.
Most are phototrophic , although some are mixotrophic , deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy , myzotrophy , or phagotrophy.
Some unicellular species of green algae , many golden algae , euglenids , dinoflagellates , and other algae have become heterotrophs also called colorless or apochlorotic algae , sometimes parasitic, relying entirely on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus.
Algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria.
Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1. The singular alga is the Latin word for 'seaweed' and retains that meaning in English.
A more likely source is alliga , 'binding, entwining'. It could be any color: black, red, green, or blue. Accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin root is used.
The name fucus appears in a number of taxa. The committee on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has recommended certain suffixes for use in the classification of algae.
These are -phyta for division, -phyceae for class, -phycideae for subclass, -ales for order, -inales for suborder, -aceae for family, -oidease for subfamily, a Greek-based name for genus, and a Latin-based name for species.
The primary classification of algae is based on certain morphological features. The chief among these are a pigment constitution of the cell, b chemical nature of stored food materials, c kind, number, point of insertion and relative length of the flagella on the motile cell, d chemical composition of cell wall and e presence or absence of a definitely organized nucleus in the cell or any other significant details of cell structure.
Although Carolus Linnaeus included algae along with lichens in his 25th class Cryptogamia, he did not elaborate further on the classification of algae.
While Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link classified algae on the basis of the colour of the pigment and structure, William Henry Harvey proposed a system of classification on the basis of the habitat and the pigment.
Agardh — divided algae into six orders: Diatomaceae, Nostochineae, Confervoideae, Ulvaceae, Floriadeae and Fucoideae. Around , algae along with fungi were grouped under Thallophyta, a division created by Eichler Encouraged by this, Adolf Engler and Karl A.
Prantl proposed a revised scheme of classification of algae and included fungi in algae as they were of opinion that fungi have been derived from algae.
The scheme proposed by Engler and Prantl is summarised as follows: . The algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to cyanobacteria.
Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in cyanobacteria and are interpreted as representing reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria.
However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events.
The table below describes the composition of the three major groups of algae. Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper right.
Many of these groups contain some members that are no longer photosynthetic. Some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts, while others have lost plastids entirely.
Phylogeny based on plastid  not nucleocytoplasmic genealogy:. Land plants Embryophyta. These groups have green chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b.
Chlorarachniophytes , which belong to the phylum Cercozoa , contain a small nucleomorph , which is a relict of the algae's nucleus.
Euglenids , which belong to the phylum Euglenozoa , live primarily in fresh water and have chloroplasts with only three membranes. The endosymbiotic green algae may have been acquired through myzocytosis rather than phagocytosis.
These groups have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and c , and phycobilins. The shape varies from plant to plant; they may be of discoid, plate-like, reticulate, cup-shaped, spiral, or ribbon shaped.
They have one or more pyrenoids to preserve protein and starch. The latter chlorophyll type is not known from any prokaryotes or primary chloroplasts, but genetic similarities with red algae suggest a relationship there.
In the first three of these groups Chromista , the chloroplast has four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in cryptomonads , and they likely share a common pigmented ancestor, although other evidence casts doubt on whether the heterokonts , Haptophyta , and cryptomonads are in fact more closely related to each other than to other groups.
The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but considerable diversity exists in chloroplasts within the group, and a number of endosymbiotic events apparently occurred.
Linnaeus , in Species Plantarum ,  the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature , recognized 14 genera of algae, of which only four are currently considered among algae.
In , Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin — published the Historia Fucorum , the first work dedicated to marine algae and the first book on marine biology to use the then new binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus.
It included elaborate illustrations of seaweed and marine algae on folded leaves. Harvey — and Lamouroux  were the first to divide macroscopic algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation.
This is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: red algae Rhodospermae , brown algae Melanospermae , green algae Chlorospermae , and Diatomaceae.
At this time, microscopic algae were discovered and reported by a different group of workers e. Müller and Ehrenberg studying the Infusoria microscopic organisms.
Unlike macroalgae , which were clearly viewed as plants, microalgae were frequently considered animals because they are often motile.
Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-Darwinian classifications, e. Throughout the 20th century, most classifications treated the following groups as divisions or classes of algae: cyanophytes , rhodophytes , chrysophytes , xanthophytes , bacillariophytes , phaeophytes , pyrrhophytes cryptophytes and dinophytes , euglenophytes , and chlorophytes.
Later, many new groups were discovered e. With the abandonment of plant-animal dichotomous classification, most groups of algae sometimes all were included in Protista , later also abandoned in favour of Eukaryota.
However, as a legacy of the older plant life scheme, some groups that were also treated as protozoans in the past still have duplicated classifications see ambiregnal protists.
Some parasitic algae e. In other cases, some groups were originally characterized as parasitic algae e. Furthermore, groups like the apicomplexans are also parasites derived from ancestors that possessed plastids, but are not included in any group traditionally seen as algae.
These probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were probably filamentous. A range of algal morphologies is exhibited, and convergence of features in unrelated groups is common.
The only groups to exhibit three-dimensional multicellular thalli are the reds and browns , and some chlorophytes. Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids , but colonial and nonmotile forms have developed independently among several of the groups.
Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the lifecycle of a species, are. In three lines, even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue differentiation.
The innovation that defines these nonalgal plants is the presence of female reproductive organs with protective cell layers that protect the zygote and developing embryo.
Hence, the land plants are referred to as the Embryophytes. Many algae, particularly members of the Characeae species,  have served as model experimental organisms to understand the mechanisms of the water permeability of membranes, osmoregulation , turgor regulation , salt tolerance , cytoplasmic streaming , and the generation of action potentials.
Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants, but in algae, too. Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other organisms.
In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates organic substances to the host organism providing protection to the algal cells. The host organism derives some or all of its energy requirements from the algae.
Examples are:. Lichens are defined by the International Association for Lichenology to be "an association of a fungus and a photosynthetic symbiont resulting in a stable vegetative body having a specific structure".
In nature they do not occur separate from lichens. It is unknown when they began to associate. A photobiont may be associated with many different mycobionts or may live independently; accordingly, lichens are named and classified as fungal species.
The photobiont possibly triggers otherwise latent genes in the mycobiont. Trentepohlia is an example of a common green alga genus worldwide that can grow on its own or be lichenised.
Lichen thus share some of the habitat and often similar appearance with specialized species of algae aerophytes growing on exposed surfaces such as tree trunks and rocks and sometimes discoloring them.
Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine invertebrates of the order Scleractinia stony corals.
These animals metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts.
Algae can be grown using water resources such as brackish-, sea-, and wastewater unsuitable for cultivating agricultural crops.
When using wastewater, such as municipal, animal and even some industrial runoff, they can help in its treatment and purification, while benefiting from using the nutrients present.
Algae are very diverse and found almost everywhere on the planet.Parrotfish are another species that feed on the algae and will target longfin farms, but despite the enormous size difference between the two, the longfin is so aggressive it can scare parrotfish. Algele (lat. Algae - „iarbă de mare”) constituie un grup diversificat din Regnul Chromista, Regnul Plante dar și unele organisme din Regnul Monera. Algae (/ ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi /; singular alga / ˈælɡə /) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. It is a polyphyletic grouping, including species from multiple distinct clades. Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. (Biology) unicellular or multicellular organisms formerly classified as plants, occurring in fresh or salt water or moist ground, that have chlorophyll and other pigments but lack true stems, roots, and leaves. Algae, which are now regarded as protoctists, include the seaweeds, diatoms, and spirogyra.